Draft Minutes
Coordinating Committee for Intercontinent Research Networking (CCIRN)
June 29, 1996 -- Montreal, CA

I. PARTICIPANTS

Dr. Osman Badr
Egyptian Universities Network (FRCU)- EGYPT
Obadr@frcu.eun.eg

Mrs. Estela N. Barone
Secretariat of Science & Technology- ARGENTINA
ebarone@secyt.gov.ar - http://www.secyt.gov.ar

Mr. Hans-Werner Braun
TELEDESIC Corp. - USA
hwb@teledesic.com

Dr. Lee G. Caldwell
IBM Corporation- USA
leec@gemini.ibm.com or karenc@gemini.ibm.com

Dr. Ivan MouraCampos
Ministry of Science & Technology SEPIN-MCT - BRAZIL
ivanmc@mct.gov.br - http://www.cg.org.br

Prof. Kilnam Chon
KAIST- KOREA
chon@cosmos.kaist.ac.kr - http://cosmos.kaist.ac.kr

Dr. Kimberly Claffy
Univ. of California @ San Diego / NLANR - USA
kc@kasina.nlanr.net - http://www.nlanr.net

Prof. Shigeki Goto
Waseda University- JAPAN
goto@cfi.waseda.ac.jp

Mr. Frode Greisen
Ebone - DENMARK
frode.greisen@uni-c.dk - http://www.ebone.net

Dr. Saul Hahn
OAS-USA
shahn@umd5.umd.edu - http://www.oas.org/EN/PROG/RED/covere.htm

Mr. Douglas I. Hughes
CANARIE Inc.- CANADA
Doug.Hughes@canarie.ca

Prof. Haruhisa Ishida
University of Tokyo - JAPAN
ishida@u-tokyo.ac.jp

Dr. Tarek M. Kamel
IDSC/RITSEC- EGYPT
tkamel@idsc.gov.eg - http://www.idsc.gov.eg & http://www.titsec.wm.eg

Prof. Peter Thomas Kirstein
Int'l Collaboration Board & University College London- UK
p.kirstein@cs.ucl.ac.uk (afternoon only)

Mr. Lawrence H.Y. Law
The Hong Kong University of Science & Technology- HONG KONG
cclaw@usthk.ust.hk

Mr. Mike A. Lawrie
UNINET- SOUTH AFRICA
mlawrie@apies.frd.ac.za - http://www.frd.ac.za/uninet/unitech.html

Mr. Lee Sang-Hoon
Ministry of Information and Communications -KOREA
leesh@mic.go.kr

Mr. Peng Liu
Ministry of Ele. Industry
General Research Center - CHINA

Prof. David G. Macneil
University of New Brunswick- CANADA
dgm@unb.ca

Mr. Jun Matsukata
NACSIS- JAPAN
jm@rd.nacsis.ac.jp or jm@sinet.ad.jp

Ms. Tracie E. Monk
DynCorp / FNC- USA
tmonk@snap.org - http://www.fnc.gov & http://www.fnc.gov/CCIRN.html

Mr. Pornthep Narula
NECTEC - THAILAND
tep@nectec.or.th

Mr. Kees Neggers
SURFnet - THE NETHERLANDS
neggers@surfnet.nl

Mr. Danton Nunes
Brazilian Research NetworkCoordinator of Operations - BRAZIL
danton@ci-sp.rnp.br

Mrs. Ibukun Odusote
Yaba College of Technology-NIGERIA
Ibukun.Odusote@bc-lagos.sprint.com

Ms. Hilarie Orman
Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency- USA
horman@darpa.mil - http://www.darpa.mil>http://www.darpa.mil

Mr. Howard Posluns
Transportation Development Centre- CANADA
h.posluns@resonet.com

Dr. Nii Quaynor
Network Computer Systems -GHANA
quaynor@ghana.com

Dr. Jose Ribeiro-Filho
Brazilian Research Network - BRAZIL
j.ribeirofilho@cr-rj-rnp.br

Mr. Jose Soriano
Red Cientifica Peruana (RCP)- PERU
js@cahuide.rcp.net.pe - http://ekeko.rep.net.pe

Mr. George Strawn
National Science Foundation - USA
gstrawn@nsf.gov- http://www.nsf.gov

Mr. Eduardo Tadao Takahashi
Brazilian Research Network-BRAZIL
tadao@hq.rnp.br - http://www.rnp.br

Dr. Tin-Wee Tan
National University of Singapore - SINGAPORE
tinwee@irdu.nus.sg

Mr. Vincent K. Taylor
DREnet Management Board - CANADA
vktaylor@crad.dnd.ca

Mr. Stefano Trumpy
TERENA -ITALY
s.trumpy@cnuce.cnr.it

Mr. Florencio I. Utreras
REUNA- CHILE
futreras@reuna.cl

Dr. Karel W. Vietsch
TERENA- THE NETHERLANDS
vietsch@terena.nlwww.terena.nl

Mr. Peter Villemoes
Nordunet - DENMARK
Peter.Villemoes@nordu.netwww.nordu.net

Mr. Duane P. Wessels
NCAR- USA
wessels@nlanr.net

Mr. Walter W. Wiebe
Federal Networking Council- USA
wwiebe@nsf.gov - http://www.fnc.gov

Mr. Jim Williams
FARNET-USA
jimw@farnet.org - http://www.farnet.org

II. ACTION ITEMS

  1. S. Hahn, M. Lawrie, and S. Yamaguchi agreed to take the lead in monitoring and reporting to the CCIRN membership on developments in related to utilization of satellite technology for the Internet.
  2. Karel Vietsch agreed to distribute information to CCIRN members about a the CD Rom containing PGP software and related information on encryption.
  3. Tracie Monk agreed to provide pointers to discussions of privacy and encryption regulations / legislation and related discussions. Other members agreed to share country-specific information and to populate a CCIRN web page on this topic.
  4. Hilarie Orman to provide contacts/URLs on encryption/security technology sites and information on IETF activities related to IPSec and encryption.
  5. CCIRN members agreed to make recommendations to their respective DNS registries that coordinates for latitude/longitude of named servers be added to the DNS records.
  6. Kees Neggers and Kilnam Chon agreed to identify key individuals who are knowledgeable concerning MBONE and related subjects and who may be able to provide information and assistance on multicast technology to other CCIRN research networks.
  7. Members agreed that the CCIRN co-chairs should explore the possibility of forming working groups associated with the following topic areas:
      - statistics / metrics
      - caching
      - privacy and security
      - MBONE
      - regulation
      - cost sharing / collaborations

    If formed, a meeting of one or more of these working groups might be held concurrent with the December IETF meeting in San Jose, CA. (Chon, Neggers, Wiebe )
  8. Vincent Taylor will circulate the CCIRN ethics statement.
  9. Tracie Monk will distribute the revised CCIRN charter for comments / corrections.
  10. The next meeting of the full CCIRN will be held in Kuala Lumpur in June 1997, with the EU CCIRN acting as host. (K. Neggers)

III. PROCEEDINGS

1. Opening

CCIRN co-chairs (Walter Wiebe, Kilnam Chon, and Kees Neggers) and Vincent Taylor, CCIRN Canada, welcomed and introduced participants. The co-chairs expressed the hope that the CCIRN could achieve a true spirit of sharing and caring during this meeting which would result in active collaborations in the months which follow. Members also expressed their sincere appreciation to Howard Posluns, Transport Canada, for the assistance he and his staff have provided related to meeting logistics and development of the information packages.

2. Continental Initiatives

NACCIRN - George Strawn described the current period as one of evolution toward the second generation of Internet research and applications. The Internet is experiencing the early introduction of new protocols, applications and services both domestically and globally. U.S. government research and education (R&E) networks are evolving in response to these emerging requirements. NSF's future networking activities will feature two important project areas -- the domestic and international connections programs. The domestic connection program is in progress with proposals now under review. This program is intended to address the research requirements of higher education institutions through providing innovative connections to the very high speed Bandwidth Networking Service (vBNS). The vBNS is an OC-3c backbone (being upgraded to OC-12 by 1997) which is provided through a cooperative agreement between NSF and MCI.

NSF's international connection program solicitation is still under review within NSF and should be released in the next few months. Strawn indicated that the current arrangements with Sprint ICM and participating institutions may continue through October 1997 to permit a transition between the existing and new program.

Doug Hughes described the activities of Canada's primary research network, Canarie or Canadian Network for the Advancement of Research, Industry and Education. Canarie is involved with providing advanced network services; technology and applications development; and outreach. It represents one of the world's largest high speed research network's connecting over 200 ATM switches and routers in 11 regional test networks spanning over 6,000 kilometers with connections across Canada and now across the Atlantic via Teleglobe (via the CANTAT-3 cable) to the European JAMES high speed research network at OC3 speeds. The new architecture combines the National Test Network (NTN) and Internet backbone (CA*net ) on same ATM network. There are also T3 connections to the U.S. For more information, see: http://www.canarie.ca/ntn.

ASIA CCIRN: Kilnam Chon described the various forms of intercontinental connectivity linking Asian countries to the U.S. These include: 1) ABONE - a commercial T3/T1 service for Asian countries, including Japan, Hong Kong, Singapore, and Korea 2) STIX - a commercial T1/64K service for Singapore, Nepal, Sri Lanka, etc.; 3) Internet Exposition Railroad which will be a T3/T1 service for Japan, Korea, Taiwan, and other interested countries; 4) PTT Connections - at the T1/128Kbps levels with near-term participation by Japan, Korea, and Taiwan; 5) Asia Internet Interconnection Initiative (AI3) - experimental satellite linking countries such as Japan, Hong Kong, Cambodia, and Indonesia; 6) Global Reach Internet Consortium - a proposed commercial enterprise currently being formed; and 7) APAN - which will offer 1.5 -155 Mbps links. (For further information see: http://apan.or.kr or http://www.apan.net).

EUROPEAN CCIRN - Kees Neggers explained that EuropaNet and Ebone serve as the primary research networks in Europe. EuropaNet is the networking service for DANTE -- a not-for-profit company, set up in 1993 by European national research networks to organize international network services for European researchers. For more information, see http://www.dante.net. Ebone is a major pan-European Backbone connecting over 60 regional networks in more than 20 countries to the global Internet. For more information, see: http://www.taide.net/ebone.html.

Intra-European connectivity is still limited due to the fact that links from one European country to another are equivalent in cost to links to the U.S. This is due to the pricing structure of individual PTTs. Cost is also an important factor inhibiting intercontinental connectivity. Under current pricing models, there is no economic incentive to "scale" bandwidth, with actual prices tied linearly to bandwidth. Cost sharing is also not common on an international level, with non-U.S. customers forced to pay full circuit prices.

LATIN AMERICA (LA) - Florencio Utreras described a meeting in Peru which resulted in the establishment of a Forum for Latin American networks. One task of this forum -- that of addressing continental connectivity issues -- is complicated by the variance in pricing models employed by the various L.A. telcos. The forum will also focus on the development of content and training of people. The next meeting (Oct. 1-2, 1996) will center on these topics. Details on this forum are available at the following websites: http://apu.rcp.net.pe/VFORO/ (Peru server) or http://ekeko.rcp.net.pe/VFORO (U.S. server).

Saul Hahn discussed the status of networking in LA. All LA countries now have IP connectivity. Several commercial connections are being established by the local telcos, MCI and others. Satellite connectivity utilizes Comsat and Intelsat for most connectivity and PAS-1 -- most satellites tie into the ICM connection at Homestead Florida where port charges are paid by the ICM cooperative agreement. An innovative concept of having groundstations transmit to the satellite which would then broadband broadcast to LA continental links is being explored with Randy Bush. Such an approach might eliminate a significant portion of the traffic through the Homestead facility. Fiber optic cable links are also expanding rapidly, and a microwave backbone is being developed in Central America. The host counts are increasing throughout LA, most notably in Brazil, where the number of hosts doubled in last 4 months to 40,000 hosts. Brazil now has 4 Mb of connectivity to the U.S. Similar to the EU, bandwidth in LA is priced linearly, thereby limiting incentives for scaling and cost-sharing of links. For more information on LA connectivity, see http://www.oas.org/EN/PROG/RED/covere.htm.

AFRICA - Mike Lawrie described the UNINET network which provides connectivity to academic and research institutions in South Africa, with connections to Mozambique and Nambia. There are also 3-4 commercial ISPs in South Africa (plus 20 resellers) with a total capacity to the U.S. of about 8 Mbps (inc. 1 Mbps for Uninet). South African government has set up an intranet, called Openet, linking various government services, with some connectivity to the Internet. Seventeen African countries now have full IP connectivity -- up significantly over the last year. These countries are: Algeria, Benin, Egypt, Ghana, Kenya, Morocco, Namibia, Mauritius (X.25, inactive), Madagascar (X.25), Mozambique, Senegal, South Africa, Swaziland, Tunisia, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Most links are via modem at 14.4 Kbps. Issues in South Africa include: fractionalization of IP numbering; issues related to administration of the CO.ZA namespace; and the lack of a local Internet exchange point for peering.

Iyabo Odusote described the delays which political difficulties have caused for some planned projects in Nigeria. On the positive side, the costs of a 64Kbps satellite link has dropped from $250K to $125K, allowing the emergence of some commercial operators.

Tarek Kamel described the growth in connectivity in Egypt, moving toward commercial models similar to those being developed in Brazil. Security remains a very important issue in this region with research networks being asked to set the pace in moving toward a functional international Internet infrastructure. Stefano Trumpy described the emerging information society the Mediterranean region, driven largely by growth in the commercial sector. He noted that the costs of intra-North African connectivity are often higher than connecting directly to Europe.

On a continental level, there is significant need for regular regional meetings to ensure that the expansion of the Internet in Africa goes smoothly and efficiently and that expertise is shared. For more information on bandwidth conditions in Africa, see http://greg.csurf.co.za. For information about African connectivity, see http://demiurge.wn.apc.org/africa.

GENERAL - Participants discussed the various international programs which seek to enhance connectivity to and within developing countries, including the World Banks' InfoDEV program, NSF's International Connection program, USAID's Leland Initiative, the UNDP's Sustainable Development Program, and the Africa Internet Forum. They expressed a need to improve information dissemination about these and related programs to the people who need it. Participants also expressed the desire that examples of cost sharing bandwidth be made more public and available, e.g., examples such as NTT's willingness to carry R&E traffic from Japan to the U.S. for free were cited. For more information about donor programs, see:

Participants discussed the possibility of CCIRN establishing a "Design Group for International Connectivity." Such a group could gather and disseminate information on global initiatives, cost-sharing of links, and examples on how to leverage limited information. A group such as this could focus on efforts aimed at advancing the overall Internet infrastructure with emphasis on collaborations in high performance networking. Interest was also expressed by participants in identifying mechanisms for setting up direct links between Europe and LA and Asia and LA.

Models of cost sharing among research networks were discussed. Frode Greisen presented a model for sharing the costs of a trans-Atlantic link. The acceptable use policies (AUPs) of U.S. R&E networks were also discussed. These policies complicate the possibility of cost-sharing between the U.S. and some developing country research networks given that the latter often serve as "pioneer networks". As precursors to commercial networks, the services of these pioneering networks may extend into the commercial realm, in possible violation of the AUPs of U.S. R&E networks.

There is also a need for technologies, such as caching, which can improve the efficiency of networks and reduce bandwidth requirements. Jose Soriano explained that in Peru's case, 47% of the hits on Peruvian web sites were from U.S. users, prompting Peru to install a mirror server in Homestead, Florida to reduce U.S.-originating traffic across their satellite link.

3. High Performance Initiatives

George Strawn described the current high performance communications (HPC) organization structure in the U.S. government. HPC initiatives in the U.S. are distributed across various agency networks, with guidance provided by the Committee on Computing, Information and Communications (CCIC). The CCIC reports to the National Science and Technology Council, chaired by President Clinton. The FNC; the Computing, Information and Communications (CIC) R&D subcommittee; and the new Applications Council all report to the CCIC. Under CIC R&D subcommittee there are five working groups, including a Large Scale Networking Systems (LSNS) working group. The FNC focuses on the operational characteristics of Federal networks, while the LSNS will focus on the emergence of next generation services and applications. The first tasks of the LSNS include designing ways to interconnect the Federal networks. Possible models for these interconnects include the proposed Testbed Access Point (TAP) -- as a centralized connection point for Federal and international networks -- and gigaPOPs, connecting universities and research institutions via the vBNS and NSF Connections Program. Connections proposed under the latter effort could possibly be extrapolated to include international users.

Professor Suguru Yamaguchi described the Asian Internet Interconnection Initiative (AI3). The purpose of the AI3 is to test practical experiments of satellite use for the Internet in Asia and the Pacific. Phase I (30 mo.) with the WIDE Project would use the JSAT to: a) test the existing results from the WIDE Project, including IP multicasting over satellite links; b) address challenging new issues; and c) transfer the capability to the general Internet community in the region. Phase II (beyond) would focus on the practical use of satellite links for the Internet -- vendor TBD. As of the third quarter of 1996, there will be three KU band links, including those from Japan to Thailand and Hong Kong. Links to China, Vietnam, Cambodia, Singapore and Malaysia are planned. Additional information is available at: http://hayate.aist-nara.ac.jp/research/ai3. A copy of the AI3 project proposal is also available at: http://www.wide.ad.jp/wide/announce. The mailing list is ai3@wide.ad.jp.

Participants discussed the importance of developing improved Internet access and operational capabilities using satellite technology. Several members agreed to follow-up and to keep each other and the CCIRN membership appraised of developments in this area.

Kilnam Chon described the Asia-Pacific Advanced Networking Consortium. The consortium will be initiated in 1996, and the network operation starting in 1977 with primary links of 45/155 Mbps. The topology will include Eurasia and Pacific bridges connected by Asia-Pacific hubs. Initially the service will offer continental connectivity across a 155 Mbps backbone. For more information, see http://www.apan.net

Proposed activities include the development of hubs, intercontinental bridges, continental connectivity, R&D collaborations, virtual community development, and human resource development. The interexchanges don't yet exist in Asia. It will cost approximately $25 million for a half circuit for all the hubs. The costs for individual half circuits are to be paid by link owners -- with the intended focus on "costs" of these circuits vs. "price". Note that "prices" quoted for Korea connecting to Japan are roughly the same as to U.S.; however, the "costs" are substantially less. The traffic (once it reaches Japan) will be carried free of charge across a KDD- ATT pipe. Approximately 5% of this 100 Gbps pipe will be set aside for research usage.

The consortium will use both ATM and non-ATM infrastructure. Bandwidth reservation protocols (e.g., RSVP and CBR/CIR) will be tested; ATM Testbed Interconnections will be accommodated as appropriate. As the effort develops, links may be established with Africa and Latin America.

Members discussed the two themes emerging from these and other discussions: 1) connectivity to service/support the needs of the research, development and education communities and 2) connectivity for research on networking. Participants agreed that both subjects are important and should be addressed by the CCIRN.

Karel Vietsch described Terena and its membership (see: http://www.terena.nl). Terena serves as the operational unit for the TEN-34 project; with DANTE serving as the coordinating partner. The TEN-34 project officially started in February 1996. A spin off of this effort became the JAMES program which is focused on research networking. JAMES stands for Joint ATM Experimental Service. The costs for these projects are roughly 30 million ECU for TEN-34 and 5 million ECU for JAMES. Contracts have recently been signed, with topologies, cost-sharing and related contractual arrangements between networks and PNOs are still being defined. Unisource provides part of the TEN-34 backbone -- part ATM lines and part leased lines. Transatlantic connectivity is no longer envisioned under the TEN-34.

JAMES is just being initiated and is more project focused than TEN-34. Given its structure, there is greater need for cooperation from telcos, adding to the political and organizational complexity of the project. For more information on European initiatives, see:

Stefano Trumpy described the scope and activities of the G-7's Global Interoperability of Broadband Networks (GIBN). GIBN seeks to establish a global infrastructure to interconnect existing national broadband testbeds and national research networks. The GIBN infrastructure is project-based -- not for general usage of networks. Applications include telemedicine, digital libraries, museums, environment, etc.

The infrastructure includes links from Teleglobe in Canada to Hamberg (Deutsch Telecom) and Italy (Telecom Italia) and between KDD Japan and AT&T. The latter agreement is for a 9 month period. Prof. Goto explained that the KDD-ATT link is 155 Mpbs connection from Japan to the U.S. with 45 Mbps connections to NACSIS, JICST, & CRL in Japan and Wisconsin University, Michigan University, and North Carolina University in U.S. The links are expected to be in place this Fall. ATM switches are to be used.

The acceptable use policy (AUP) is under study in cooperation with the carriers. The candidate applications to utilize will have to comply with this. There will be a series of prerequisites related to accessing the network, i.e. have collaboration partners in multimedia services area; existing cooperation with a center of excellence in telematics; and availability of a suitable access to the SIRUS infrastructure.

4. Lunch Presentations

Lee Caldwell presented an overview of IBM's offer to collaborate with the higher education community by providing low cost connections into IBM's high performance national backbone network and to cooperate directly with research/education institutions on topics related to networking and related research. A copy of Caldwell's CCIRN presentation is available at: http://www.fnc.gov/ccirn_ibm.html. Topics related to the U.S. higher education community's future networking requirements will be discussed at a joint FARNET / Educom meeting in Colorado in August 1996.

Hans-Werner Braun provided an overview of Teledesic's planned satellite infrastructure. The current design includes the deployment of a constellation of 840 satellites in low earth orbit. He discussed the network services dimensions, including trade-offs between bandwidth per second (16 kbps thru OCnn); transaction duration (burst, normal, or long duration); and service properties (deferred, shared, prioritized, and guaranteed). Possible Internet implementation strategies include using the Teledesic gigabit nexus as a giant FDDI to communicate with Teledesic ground stations (30 cm dishes) via datagrams -- switched based on remote terminal addresses. The ground stations would then be linked to Internet routers which would send data via MAC-header plus IP. This would permit the development of virtual private networks and multicast. The technology to be used in this venture must be fixed this year. Braun requested that CCIRN members contact him (hwb@teledesic.com) with suggestions regarding specific requirements of their users which should be factored into Teledesic's design. Information packages relating to this effort can be obtained by sending a message to info@teledesic.com.

Ivan Campos described Brazil's Framework for Cooperation related to the Global Information Initiative and the Brazil's 10 Strategic Moves (see: http://www.fnc.gov/ccirn_brazil.html). In this framework, applications, services, and infrastructure are matrixed against the R&D, technology, & regulatory aspects of the GII. Information on the matrix and specific activities related to the Brazilian Research Network are available at http://www.mct.gov.br.

5. COLLABORATIONS: Roundtable Technical Discussions

A. Statistics / Metrics Overview

Tracie Monk and Kimberly Claffy provided an overview of activities in the field of Internet metrics and statistics acquisition / analysis. The presentation was based on a survey report which is available at http://www.nlanr.net/metricsurvey.html, with a copy of the full presentation available at http://www.nlanr.net/Presentations/Montreal.jun96/.

CCIRN participants discussed the critical need for the development and deployment of measurement tools throughout the global Internet infrastructure. Since the transition of the Internet to the current commercial architecture in 1995, there has been minimal collection or analysis of traffic data. At the same time, the perceived need for end-to-end performance data and information on workload characterization is growing within the user, research and service provider communities. Claffy described several measurement tools available today and ones which are under development.

Currently the only site at which detailed traffic data is being collected and made publicly available is at the FIX-West FDDI (note that content and other privacy-related information is masked before dissemination using TCPpriv software). Collection of this data will terminate once a proposed gigaswitch is installed due to the fact that the Digital gigaswitch does not include the necessary measurement "hooks". Adoption of other advanced technologies, e.g. ATM, will also limit the ability of researchers, engineers and users to collect traffic data.

Members agreed that this is an important area for CCIRN attention, and expressed the sentiment that a working group should be established to track and participate in developments related to this sector.

Traffic visualizations and related analyses can be found at the following URLs:

B. International Caching Hierarchy

According to Duane Wessels (NLANR), the Internet's sustained explosive growth calls for an architected solution to the problem of scalable wide area information dissemination. While increasing network bandwidths help, the rapidly growing Internet user populace continues to outstrip network and server capacity as they attempt to access widely popular pools of data throughout the network.

In 1995, the National Science Foundation awarded a grant to NLANR to deploy a prototype information provisioning infrastructure. The U.S. portion of this project includes the deployment of caches at the five NSF-supported supercomputer centers, and one at FIX-West. Additional U.S. sites are being added at PARK.ORG near MAE-East in Washington D.C. and the Ameritech NAP in Chicago.

The caches are configured to distribute the load amongst themselves so that each one handles an appropriate subset of top-level-domains. Generally, the two West-coast caches handle objects from Asia-Pacific and South American countries, the two East-coast caches handle Europe, and the two central caches handle U.S. domains.

Participation of organizations in other countries over the last year has resulted in the evolution of a global hierarchy or mesh of caches. The primary motivation of international participants is to conserve bandwidth. More than half of the trans-Pacific traffic from Australia, for example, is http related. Deployment of caches and proxy server configurations has significantly reduced demand upon these links (note however that due to overall growth in usage, the cache-related savings simply delay required upgrades in bandwidth).

The hierarchy consists of national root caches, regional caches, institution caches, and users. At present, there is no discovery protocol which can be used to identify cache sites -- this is accomplished through e-mail between cache administrators.

Related caching activities in Australia, the UK, Singapore, and Thailand were discussed. Soriano noted that 70% of all requests to Peruvian web sites were from outside of the country, placing a significant strain on bandwidth resources. Participants discussed the importance of employing a distributed caching hierarchy which could transmit requests during off-peak periods. Protection / monitoring of certain data flow, e.g., limiting access to pornographic sites, was also discussed, as was the merits of pre-emptive versus robust caching.

Relevant web sites and mail list include the following:

C. Internet Security & Privacy

Tracie Monk and Walter Wiebe described the status of Federal Networking Council activities with respect to privacy and security, including a new FNC multi-agency initiative entitled "Collaborations in Internet Security" (CIS). The CIS project aims to test and validate various Federal agency / private sector approaches to Internet security and to develop a sustainable process for developing, integrating, and deploying security technologies that are interoperable throughout the Federal government and within the commercial and academic sectors. DCE/Kerberos, PKI, authentication/privacy, secure email/web are some of the technologies which are being explored.

Karel Vietsch described Terena's efforts with respect to Internet security and developing an incidence response capability. Over the last two years, Terena has been promoting an effort to coordinate the functions of the various national CERTs. Details on the EU CERT are available on the Terena web page. Karel also described a CD Rom containing PGP details and software produced by Terena, with the support of SURFnet and UKERNA. Their goal was to promote the availability of facilities for secure e-mail communications.

Latin American participants described the need for reliable information in this sector, referring to negative press about the vulnerability of the Net. Chili is currently developing regulations related to the use of PKI for electronic commerce. Brazil has recently set up a working group to study issues of security requirements/technologies.

The Canadians indicated that PKI is being implemented throughout Canada's networking infrastructure and cited a Canadian web site with information on Canada's IT strategy, including security related legislation, see: http://www.cse.dnd.ca. Requests were made for similar web sites in other countries, particularly the U.S. given the current level of legislative discussion on these topics.

Hillary Orman spoke about IETF activities in this sector. In particular, secure DNS and related trust models are currently being examined by IETF. She offered to summarize some of these activities for CCIRN members and provide pointers to relevant web sites.

CCIRN members agreed that greater collaboration in Internet security and privacy initiatives is warranted at an international level, including the possibility of international research networks promoting select common privacy / security infrastructures and policies. Information sharing with respect to both emerging technologies and privacy/security related policies and legislation was viewed as very important by participants.

Several members, including Barone, Tan, Kamel, and Uteras, indicated interest in participating in an on-going CCIRN working group on this topic.

Relevant URLs include:

D. MBONE - Topologies and Visualizations

Kimberly Claffy described developments related to the deployment of MBONE globally. She discussed the efficient star-type topologies being used in the EU and Asia -- which are reflective, in part, of their attempts to conserve bandwidth. She also described NLANR efforts to create 3- D visualizations of global multicast traffic flows. Still representations of these images can be found at http://www.nlanr.net/Viz/PlanetMulticast. Versions of these visualizations are available from the CERN MBONE Sesssion Archive at http://csvod1.cern.ch/cgi-bin/nph-MBone-sessions.

Optimally, according to Claffy, the topology should provide for multicast native peering. Exchange points should offer a separate LAN with native multicast and customers receiving feeds directly, as opposed to tunneling through peering points. She also described the critical need for latitude / longitude information in order to do visualizations of traffic flows. This data should ideally be collected / updated regularly as part of the DNS records for specific routers (although this may not guarantee pinpointing of routers' physical location). For more information on this recommendation, see RFC 1876, entitled "A Means for Expressing Location Information in the Domain Name System." This RFC defines the format of a DNS Resource Record (RR) for associating host location mappings to host names within a domain.

Doug Hughes described efforts of Canarie to implement the new multicast protocol entitled PIM. Representatives from Europe discussed the rationale behind their current MBONE topology and provided an overview of current research efforts -- including those at the University College London.

A good introduction to desktop videoconferencing and the MBONE is available at: http://www.lbl.gov/ctl/vconf-faq.html

6. NEXT STEPS

Participants discussed CCIRN's raison d'etre, agreeing that there are two factors which strongly support continuation of the CCIRN:

  1. renewed interest within the U.S. (and continuing interest in other countries) in promoting the development of high performance networking capabilities for the research and education communities -- to which an international coordinating body such as the CCIRN may make substantive contributions.
  2. the growing interest in and relevance of global Internet collaborations -- for which CCIRN can act as a catalyst, disseminating relevant information and ensuring participation by international R&E networks.

Distinction was make between service networks (in which research and education can be carried out) and networking research which tends to be high end and not directly responsive to needs of the basic community. Participants agreed that both have relevance within the CCIRN framework.

Participants agreed to pursue the possibility of setting up working groups associated (possibly) with the following topic areas: statistics / metrics; caching; privacy and security; MBONE; Internet regulation/laws; and cost sharing/collaborations. The latter working group might also be responsible for gathering and disseminating information on global initiatives, cost-sharing of links, and examples on how to leverage limited information. These working groups would meet in advance of the next CCIRN meeting (which is in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in June 1997). A recommended date is December 12, 1996 in San Jose, CA -- concurrent with the IETF meetings.

A revised draft of the CCIRN terms of reference (TOR) will be distributed for review. The CCIRN Ethics Statement will also be distributed to the mail list. The CCIRN mail list will be moved to an FNC server to facilitate its maintenance. The new name (for posting purposes) will be CCIRN@FNC.GOV.


Last updated - August 8, 1996
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